Electric bike basics

We get a lot of questions about e bikes, so we thought maybe we should answer a few of them here. 

How far can the bike go on a charge?

What is the life of the battery?

How fast does it go?

What is pedal assist?

What kind of maintenance does the bike need?

What is the difference between a rear hub motor and a mid drive motor?

What are the rules and laws around e bikes?